9.9 | Interactions and Disruptions






Unit Description

9.10 INTERACTIONS AND DISRUPTIONS: Efforts to reach the Indies resulted in the encounter between the people of Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. This encounter led to a devastating impact on populations in the Americas, the rise of the transatlantic slave trade, and the reorientation of trade networks. 
(Standards: 2, 3, 4; Themes: MOV, TCC, GEO, SOC, GOV, CIV, ECO, TECH, EXCH)

Unit Compelling Questions        

  • How has globalization impacted society?
Unit Supporting Questions        
  • 9.10a: What led to the Age of Exploration?

  • 9.10b,c: Did the benefits of the Columbian Exchange outweigh the costs?

  • 9.10d. How did the Spanish gain, consolidate, maintain, and distribute power in their American colonies?

  • 9.10e. How did the Age of Exploration affect Indian Ocean trade and the Ottoman Empire

Unit Conceptual Understandings      


9.10a Various motives, new knowledge, and technological innovations influenced exploration and the development of European transoceanic trade routes.


9.10b Transatlantic exploration led to the Encounter, colonization of the Americas, and the Columbian exchange.


9.10c The decimation of indigenous populations in the Americas influenced the growth of the Atlantic slave trade. The trade of enslaved peoples resulted in exploitation, death, and the creation of wealth.


9.10d European colonization in the Americas and trade interactions with Africa led to instability, decline, and near destruction of once-stable political and cultural systems.


9.10e The Eastern Hemisphere trade networks were disrupted by the European development of new transoceanic trade across the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. Shifts in global trade networks and the use of gunpowder had positive and negative effects on Asian and European empires.